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William Ifeanyi Moore: Language as An Intrinsic Part of Our Cultural Identity… or Maybe Not



dreamstime_l_39546306So my talkative self I ended up in a conversation (argument) about Nigerian tribal languages and cultural identity – half drunk on Orijin (maybe a bit more than half) – with an older gentleman. In his opinion, we had a moral obligation to make sure our children carried on the legacy of our mother tongue. In my opinion, besides when I run into trouble with the police or try to make sellers come down from Ajebutter price, the Igbo language has been as useful to me as my appendix, a vestigial organ with the inherent possibility of ruining my day. There are places I even silence the Ifeanyi in my name to avoid unfavourable tribal treatment.

I get it; language is a strong cultural heritage and it relates to a huge part of what we associate to be our cultural identity. But on a more functional level, sentiments aside, language is primarily a tool for communication. Studies in linguistics have shown time and time again how the limitations of languages can limit our thinking. For example, in Igbo, there is no word for socialism. In fact, never mind that, there is no word for the colour purple, and more worryingly, there is no word for rape (no, lape doesn’t count…is that too far?)

It is one thing to feel sentimental about our local languages, but let us be honest, in 21st-century communication, have we even developed our tribal languages to meet simple conversational needs without borrowing from other cultures? And how many of you would have come this far if this post was written in Igbo, even if you were fluent in the language?

Like the problem of our languages being under-developed for our communication needs isn’t enough, we now have to consider the emerging metropolitan Nigeria with our over 200 languages. Biko, when exactly would these local languages we fight so much for be useful? These days you can’t even toast an Amaka in Igbo even if she is fluent. It’s almost like we just want to have these languages around just to say we have them.

In my humble opinion, I think we should do our best to document all existing languages in forms that would allow their preservation in history so that they can be relearned at any time by future generations. But if you ask me if I would rather send my child to French lessons or Igbo classes, I will ask you, who Igbo don help? This isn’t a matter of not being proud of one’s culture, or aware of it. I just think the sentiments attached to languages that have almost no practical use in modern living is overplayed and I am sick of people shaming parents because their children cannot converse in their local language. A person is not less Igbo, Edo or whatever, because they cannot speak the language. As long as you have awareness, knowledge and respect for your culture, you don try.

Of course if situations permit, it is never a bad idea to teach children to speak any language. I’m just saying it’s not a sign of bad parenting if you don’t.

Photo Credit: Dreamstime

William Ifeanyi Moore is an MPharm graduate from the University of Portsmouth, UK. His true passion is in novels and poetry but he cheats on them with movies, plays, and music. He believes sacrifice and compromise is the bedrock of any healthy relationship. His debut novel Lonely Roads is out on 10/12/2015. Blog: Twitter: @willifmoore Instagram: willifmoore


  1. Oma

    March 15, 2016 at 4:48 pm

    Ifeanyi, you have come again, at least this time it is not ‘woman wahala’ lol. Tbh though, i am not sure how to feel about the views you have expressed. I mean, i get your point about practicality – being fluent in French will be more useful to my child than been fluent in Igbo. Yet, i am very sentimental when it comes to my Africanness. and for which language is such an important defining factor. I have a beautiful English name but i always choose to introduce myself by my Igbo name because it is a name i identify with, proof of my Africanness.
    I will like for my kids to have Igbo names as well and be able to speak and understand Igbo, and i will also want them to learn French, and Spanish and Portuguese.

  2. Lucinda

    March 15, 2016 at 4:52 pm

    For over 2 decades, I’ve been shamed by friends and family for my inability to pick up my dad’s language. I keep wondering how this particular middle belt/north central language would be of benefit to me and I still have not found out. Now I am more confident to shut it down as soon as someone starts making it a big deal. I can read, speak and write my mum’s language fluently and this is a win to me. There’s a lot of what I have coined as culture bullying/guilt tripping targeted at children like me. Very malicious kind. I’m not saying I’m from a privileged background but some people will make it look as if your parents spoilt you and did not complete your home training because you can’t speak the local dialect.

    Ps. Not every child who can’t speak a local dialect is ajebo.

  3. Niola

    March 15, 2016 at 5:18 pm

    Ifeanyi I disagree with you on the following basis

    I think the premise on which your argument is based is flawed by the limited definition of Language used. Language is not only a communication tool but one which use is common to people of same community or nation . May be we are not trying to communicate with the world but with our people, Perhaps?

    2. ‘A person is not less Igbo, Edo or whatever, because they cannot speak the language’
    Language is an integral part of expressing our identities and some times even credibility to be associated with a particular people. If you do not pass the Life in the UK Test and in particular the English Test , you will definitively not obtain citizenship status or be recognised as that future English man

    3. On preservation: Just like we like to see the world heritage sites preserved in the physical , so would we like to see our languages preserved in similar ways. I do not think preservation is best done by recordation. Language is a heirloom that should be passed from one generation to another besides how else would we get it ‘to meet simple conversational needs’ if it is not utilized. May be this is a sentimental argument, yes so is the devaluation of the Naira by Buhari

    4. I am glad you used the word ‘we’.Be the change you want, perhaps you can initiate the innovation you seek in our languages.

    In conclusion it shouldn’t be the option of French or Ibo it should be in addition to ,even if you wrote this in French or in Greek not many of us would have grasped it either, so it is not a function of the language itself but the audience you are trying to communicate with.

    • BlueEyed

      March 15, 2016 at 8:33 pm

      @Niola This is everything i could’ve said, I couldn’t agree more.

    • Zee

      March 16, 2016 at 5:47 pm

      Ifeanyi Moore,

      With this one post of yours, you totally “fall my hand”. And your write-ups used to make sense. You should read up on Soyinka (he writes, speaks and understands Yoruba language more fluently than English). Yet he is a World renowned Professor of English. Emphasis on World. In fact, he confesses that his intricate knowledge of the Yoruba traditional religion, culture, ideologies and language helped him in creating his best writings. Do you still ask “who Yoruba don epp”?

      I also recommend that you read Isidore Okpewho’s Call Me By My Rightful Name.

      Please don’t be one of those who perish for lack of knowledge.

      @Niniola, Take five. In fact, make that ten.

  4. Ch

    March 15, 2016 at 5:20 pm

    Well, I’ll look at this from the point of view that generally, Nigerians are very sentimental (just check out the public opinions being expressed nowadays). So, if we can be so sentimentally attached to other issues, why not the issue of our language? I am a Yoruba lady and I speak and read Yoruba fluently (still don’t understand why I can’t write same way though), and I am very proud about it and moreso, about the fact that my parents made an effort to teach me the language (I hope to replicate this in my kids). I have no issues with parents who chose not to, as long as your child turned out well in all ramifications, then you did a good job with parenting. But when this issue comes up, my stand is if other nations can export their languages, why can’t we as Nigerians? Mandarin is now a highly sought after skill in the developed world. Why? Cos the Chinese looked within, worked on their economy and exported everything exportable including their culture, food, language and what not. This then leads to which of the languages? Nigeria is a multi-lingual country, which language will be fit for this purpose. My next answer, even the UK is a multi-lingual country (I mean this literally). Have you heard the Scots speak? Or the Welsh? Well, they chose one form of English to export to us and we took it all in hook, line and sinker. Refer to Wikipedia “The de facto official language of the United Kingdom is English, which is spoken by 98% of the country’s population. In 2011, the second-most spoken language in the United Kingdom was Scots, followed by Polish, an immigrant language. The fourth most-spoken language—Welsh—is an official language in Wales, the only de jure official language in any part of the UK…..There are three other living languages indigenous to the country, Scottish Gaelic, Irish, and Cornish”…..
    Long but hope you catch my drift. I rest my case.

  5. Tonkabelle

    March 15, 2016 at 5:28 pm

    Language is very important to people because it is a means of self identity. Though your article has some valid points, the fact still remains that in a bid to improve oneself you should never forget where you came from. Speaking my own language makes me feel that I am part of something greater and it is important that our language continues to live on.

  6. Ijebujesha

    March 15, 2016 at 5:29 pm

    Very shallow neo-colonial mentality. Many of the smart Indians and Chinese doing big things on Wall Street and Silicon Valley initially struggle with the English language. Still, they thrive better than Africans who are English dictionaries personified to a large extent. Life’s fortune is about opportunities, being smart and being fortunate not about English or Nupe.Any language can be learnt once you find yourself in that domain. The idea is not to bury your identity and throw up another. In today’s global village, it goes beyond mere communiation.Promoting the English language implies selling oyinbo’s culture and economy ahead of yours. A child is capable of learning multiple languages. You don’t have to discard of yours simply becuase you think it is inferior to another-it is only in your mindset. Actually, no language or culture is inferior to the other.

  7. tunmi

    March 15, 2016 at 5:38 pm

    Hmmmm….Yoruba certainly helps me when I hear the different names and know the meanings behind them. It is also helpful when I’m watching a Yoruba film and the actors use English words where Yoruba words would have been better suited. And these are simple Yoruba words not hardcore terms. Let’s see, at the braiding shop where I work Yoruba is even more helpful. See, most of the women there are from Salone or Gambia, so Yoruba is especially helpful when I need to communicate to the other Yoruba woman present without worrying the client.

    Yoruba is also helpful when listening to oldies like Sunny Ade (yepa!! KSA is now an oldie T_T), or new folks like Olamide, Reminisce, Davido and Simi. So when would these local languages be useful? When we deem it so. Let’s not forget that there are rural areas in Nigeria, and not every Nigerian is fluent in English. I was floored on the day I watched Lere Paimo speaking English on telly; it just goes to show his superb ability as an actor. But it brings up an important note that there are people who are not so fluent in English.

    Oh…also for archaeological purposes, and for history too. Folks do study Greek and Latin and those are definitely dead languages. Granted, those have made contributions to the English language. So has our local languages. Pele has so many meanings, Owambe nko, wahala nko ati be be lo (and so on and so forth).

  8. E.A

    March 15, 2016 at 5:47 pm

    What a simplistic way to look to view your language “if you ask me if I would rather send my child to French lessons or Igbo classes, I will ask you, who Igbo don help?”. Seriously I enjoy listening to igbo music and movies. With that aside teach your child to speak French and Igbo, why do we do this as Africans- I understand that French language is more known international but this does not devalue your tribal language. Being half Nigerian (Jamaican other half), I think it is a privilege to be able to speak your language, you have access to your people, you are lucky to connect with your roots. Many people from the Caribbean and South American from Afro descent can only dream of this privilege. Secondly you mentioned how there are no igbo words for certain phrases , let me remind you this is the same for French that you happen to hold in high regards. All languages do not have English words this does not meant that they are any less important- Go to France and tell a French man that their language is insufficient because of this, Lastly I do think it is a sign of bad parenting if you actively refuse to teach your child their native language. Guys it is not that difficult if you are serious about it from the start- English at school, workplace e.t.c, your language at home. (p.s. sorry about bad grammar had to rush)

  9. Californiabawlar

    March 15, 2016 at 5:54 pm

    Yoruba: a culture, a language, a religion (with it’s own claims to creation), an heritage.

    (++longass comment for a dumbass article below)

    So you suggest that we do away with our languages…you do know that’s how you communicate culture right.
    Simplest instance: will have your traditional marriage ceremony performed in English?
    Oh wait! Your next article would be about the lack of a need for traditional weddings.

    I can’t speak for any other Nigerian dialect or language, but speaking Yoruba is a core part of your identity as a Yoruba person.
    P.s. I’m not one to shame people that can’t speak Yoruba o!

    You connect with other people on a much deeper level! I’m yet to find a phrase I can’t interpret to Yoruba but tell me how many times you tried interpreting your language to English and had to apologize cos no way in hell can you capture the essence of what you were going to say?

    Right here on BN, we’ve seen others connect just because of a comment left in a Naija language. Even when people leave comments in ibo (@Nwa yi ga ga – can’t remember correctly, Mz SA, and some others)- my eyes light up! I can’t wait to get in on the joke…same goes for us Yoruba ninjas on here!
    Some of Tufaces best songs are in Idoma. I’ve never had anyone translate them but I sing them word for word…Asa? PSquare? Phyno? Olamide?
    Need I say more about how your native tongue taps into something way deeper than what was flogged and forced on us?

    Asides from English, which you need to get a job in Naija, no other language is more important…and if you William did your research you’d realize that speaking french is not as hot around the world as it used to be. I learn mandarin as my 3rd language just because I think they might take over the world? but I wouldn’t trade my Yoruba language skillset for anything in the world. I use English only for what it’s useful for – communicating with non-Yoruba speakers…outside of that I hold no pride in my abilities in the language….if you guys notice, I hardly correct my typos.

    William: I personally think this article is way worse and puts an even worse idea out there than all your previous ridiculous ones. The oyinbo man has done a heck of a great job on our generation.
    You’d rather speak french over Ibo? Who Ibo don help? Really?!! Chai! You want to file away your language in a cabinet so people can take a peek at it when necessary; baby boy, if you don’t need it now, why would anyone else in the future? Go and read about dead languages and the effect it has on the generations after the languages are gone. No matter how much English or french you speak: no matter how yellow you are; you’d never be a white man…nope! That position has been taken. Hmmmn….Yoruba people will say “Omo ale lon fowo osi juwe ile baba e”. I know your tribesmen would have a field day addressing this colo-mentality you just displayed here…

    p.s: purple- pupa (or popu-original words are changed to sound yoruba by our linguists), rape- ifipabalo, you- ode (sorry I couldn’t resist ?)

    • Dee

      March 15, 2016 at 8:22 pm

      “…outside of that I hold no pride in my abilities in the language…”

      Wow, I really like this phrase cos it helped to solidify a sentiment I have recently become aware of. As a college/postgrad student here in the US, I realized how much joy I had/felt when I recognized a western historical reference, but felt no shame when I didn’t recognize same for an African event.

      This semester, I am taking a number of programs outside my science-science life, and I started taking pride in actually not knowing certain parts of US history- almost as a sort of defiance to the Americans who think everybody should know every aspect of American history since “oh America is oh sooo mighty and such a world power”, and I no longer felt shame at admitting a part I wasn’t familiar with.

      And oh my, you should see the pride and joy I beam now when I know one little fact about the Sene-Gambia that no one else knows, or the cashew fruit hehehehehehehe, and then I take them to school for a few seconds hehehehe (well, I only get to shine a few times sha as truthfully some of these prep-kids children have been to more African countries than I have).

      Anyways, I am not advocating ignorance i.e. I am not saying you shouldn’t be aware of history or events in a place where you live (as with most of us Africans abroad), however, this not need be a thing of pride. Rather, we should take pride in learning our own histories and recording them, so we can have more.

      #notevenrelatedtotherealpost #butshaitisconnectedsomehow loool

    • newbie

      March 15, 2016 at 9:24 pm

      Chai! (Igbo word with multiple meanings, by the way?). God bless you, nne. You have just saved me a heap of writing by essentially spilling my mind right here. I was just agonising over where to start from until I read your comment. I shall say no more.

    • Magz

      March 16, 2016 at 6:38 am

      You – ode….LMAO! Girl, thank you for that!

  10. Joe

    March 15, 2016 at 6:43 pm

    Some of my family members always try to make me feel bad for not learning our dialect. Truth is they are just wasting their time. You can’t blame me who’s 27 for not knowing how to communicate in the language when they kept speaking English throughout my formative years. How many people learn their local dialect at 27 except foreign languages and justifiably so.

    I say so about foreign languages because let’s be honest how many Urhobo or Igbo literature do we have for example? Are there online materials- can we take tutorials online? Are there inventions of new words or reforms to old ones? There’s absolutely no development!

    We’re not ready abeg. Can’t wait to start my Spanish lessons.

  11. Marie

    March 15, 2016 at 9:01 pm

    People really do take this language thing way too deep.. if I can’t speak my dialect they will say my parents did train me well or I’m forming Ajebo.. As u said “who e don help”. I wouldn’t force my kids to learn.. which ever language they choose its fine.. By the way I’m a Delta Hausa speaking lady who doesn’t like the igbo Language and I’m doing just fine.
    Also, with reference to d previous comments. The people overseas who u say they are intrigued by the Nigerian language is a vice versa of how we are intrigued by theirs also.. dnt limit yourself, the world itself is diverse and multicultural..
    P.s there’s no harm in having foreign preferences. Think I’ll learn Jamican Creole..tnx for the hint

  12. nunulicious

    March 16, 2016 at 12:15 am

    Your write up suggests that language is simply for speaking but you fail to recognise that it is actually a tool for communication. Communication in case you missed it means being part of a community-an identity, belonging, innate pride, history.

    Your suggestion that I should jettison my native language for a language that we were “flogged and forced” to learn hit a raw nerve. It makes me feel uncomfortable. It reminds me of the scene in the TV series Roots, where Kunta Kinte was hung on a stake and almost flogged to death just to force him to change his name to Toby. You might as well tell me to change my skin colour. Tell me to wipe out the genes of greatness in my blood.

    You dismiss “our sentimental attachment to our local languages” and make a mockery of how language is linked to cultural identity. The linguistic studies you reference is by who again? Your write up also gives an insight to how thwarted and polluted our learning process and educational system is. If you were taught OUR history this thought would feel like treason! Below, I’ve just copied and pasted one of my previous responses which I think is apt:

    …Our history teachers did us a great disservice, because right from childhood, they taught how we were barbaric and how the white man saved us from ourselves. For instance, they told me about Mary Slessor, how she stopped the killing of twins but they did not tell me about the Great Wall of Benin in Edo state (described as the greatest man-made structure on earth pre-mechanisation and 4 times as long as the Wall of China.) They told me about the pyramids of Egypt but didn’t tell me about the Nsude Pyramids in Udi, Enugu. They told us how they invented ships but didn’t tell me about the Dufuna Canoe-The 8000 year old boat found in present day Yobe in Northern Nigeria (waaay before “the english man” could even float across the river in my backyard)”…

    The Chinese and Indians who are doing such awesome things globally communicate, think and spread their language and culture FIRST before any other. Maybe if we embraced our identity and history we would then soar to greater heights.

  13. Tee

    March 16, 2016 at 1:11 am

    This is so funny! My friend once asked how Yoruba children in the UK speak and understand the language even though they haven’t been to Naija. I said “I guess their parents speak the language at home with them cos when they get to school they will still learn to speak britico somehow”. The next thing I heard was ” ehnnn ehnnn, una too like ngbati ngbati too much, speaking it everywhere on the train and on buses”. I was shocked at his response. This goes to show that some people can’t actually speak their language in public. Omo I bow o! In as much as I know some of my Yoruba brothers can be a bit loud on buses, I couldn’t wrap my head round the fact that some are ashamed to be identified as a Nigerian from a particular tribe. I bet to them being a ‘Jamo’ is much cooler. Mr. Writer abeg wake up from your slumber. I wonder what your children will say about where you come from in future, imagining that they won’t have the slightest idea how to speak or write your language. And God help them they don’t visit Naija too, kai dem go turn that ‘Britico’ you so love. Do you know Chinese and Indians in the UK have a more posh British accent than most Africans. I want to believe you know most of them speak their dialects too.

  14. Tosin

    March 16, 2016 at 1:42 am

    talk Naija/Yoruba to me, Baby.

  15. Bimpe

    March 16, 2016 at 2:47 am

    This is my opinion: to each his own. If you like speak your native language then speak it. If you don’t want to, then don’t.
    However, don’t point your finger at me and judge me because my parents made the decision not speak it to me in my household. I’ve been able to learn some Yoruba throughout the years, but Am I terribly interested in becoming a Yoruba scholar as opposed to building my fluency in French or Spanish? Hell no. Not when my whole family speaks English.
    And if you don’t like, then don’t talk to me.

  16. Magz

    March 16, 2016 at 6:39 am

    Funny thing, just yesterday, i sent an office assistant to help me get D.O Fagunwa’s books (Ogboju Ode Ninu Igbo Irunmole, Ireke Onibudo & Igbo Olodumare), you needed to see my joy as seeing those books.
    I was shocked when i finished reading this article because I know that most Igbos are proud of their language/dialect.
    If famous people around the world can talk in their languages and have it translated to English when it’s being broadcasted, i see no reason why i would want to say “who Yoruba don help?”
    Like really! I enjoy the fact that i am fluent in Yoruba (can understand, read and write very well) and in my native dialect.
    i fell in love with Chinua Achebe’s novels as a teenager despite the fact that these novels had some Igbo sentences that i could not understand. One of the things that fascinate my friends is being around me when i am speaking to my mother on the phone because they know it is Akure dialect speaking time! I don’t care wherever i am, it is Akure dialect baby!
    My younger sister cannot read Yoruba, or even write but she can speak very well and understand (and even our dialect) and i don’t shame her for not knowing how to read/write.
    Like you said, it is not a big achievement to be fluent in one’s native language but that doesn’t mean, one would take lackadaisical attitude towards it (which i believe this article is about).

    William Ifeanyi (it is still your name) Moore, language is a very important tool in any culture; disregard it and watch that culture die. Even if we lose almost everything to the Oyibos, must we lose that part too? And isn’t it ironical that these Oyibos are fascinated with our culture most of the times. I have seen parents who would say they don’t want to teach their kids their native language so that it won’t spoil their English-speaking ability and i was like kini gbogbo katikati yii?

    My father trained us with English language and our dialect. In fact, he dared not speak our dialect to us and we reply in English and vice versa; he would give us novels to read, ask us to summarize, God help you that you don’t know the meaning of a word, he would ask you why an Oxford dictionary is in the house if not for your use.

    I believe that if every parent learns how to balance it out, there will always be a generation of people who appreciate their native language as much as English language! English may be the official language but Yoruba is my native language and i am so proud that i am fluent in it.

    As for you Ifeanyi, ti a ba ta ara ile eni ni opo, a le ri won ra ni owon lailai. And oh! like Californiabawlar said, omo ale ni fi owo osi juwe ile baba re. Get some translators!

    Sorry for the long comment

  17. le coco

    March 16, 2016 at 7:08 am

    i dont feel bad that i cant speak my local dialect.. truth be told, most of us who cant speak are not at fault.. anybody who tries to make me feel bad for it can go and take a seat cus me im not having it.. i will direct you to my parents with whom you can lay your concerns with. it is a lot easier if you are yoruba or igbo, because even if you dont live in yorubaland or igbo land, or even in nigeria, there are still so many people to learn from, you pick up words here and there.. but for those of us minority tribes.. it is more of a mission how many people will you hear in california speaking ebira or idoma or nupe or igala?how many are speaking urhobo or ijaw?

    truth is, I try, but it is definitely sub-par. i even went as far as googling any local language tutors, couldnt find any. so i am just going to stick to my english and french and all will continue to be right with the world

  18. newbie

    March 16, 2016 at 8:20 am

    I know I said up there that I would ‘say no more’ but guess what, it’s a new day so what da heck?

    So, Ifeanyi wenem woke, I will encourage you to read about the struggles of Africans enslaved in the Americas and all around the western world between the 15th and 19th centuries. One remarkable tool of their slave masters to control and dominate their spirits was to KILL off their native languages. Grunt if you must but do not speak that savage language. And so it happened that a swathe of people of African origin, for centuries lost their identities, the essence of who they were through losing their indigenous languages. It still affects African Americans and Caribbeans till today. If it happened in the slavery era, because it was forced on them by slave masters, it is bad. But if it is happening today, self-inflicted and dressed up as progressiveness, wenem, it is beyond appalling. Language is so much more than a means of communication. Language- with all its nuances, variations of dialects, peculiar expressions, intonations and accents, tells a lot about who we are, and I think that’s awesome. Unless of course you are so desperately keen to forget who you are, because you don’t like it. That happens too.

    • Rampage

      March 16, 2016 at 2:04 pm

      Is it igbo or ikwerre are you writing?

    • newbie

      March 16, 2016 at 2:54 pm

      Does it matter? (answered like a true Nigerian, with another question lol). To answer your question, it is Ikwerre Igbo.

  19. rosemary

    March 16, 2016 at 4:07 pm

    I don’t know why you shared this with us, but I totally agree with the 1st paragraph about being more than half way high on origin.

    This guy is proudly taking us back into slavery and feeling cool with it, yes we shouldn’t be overly sentimental about anything and I agree Nigerians can overblow somethings !!!
    what has he even done to improve the language apart from telling us words that are not available, so his life is better as a Moore than as an Ifeanyi since he has to downplay his local name sometimes.
    I don’t know how he defines Language or his definition of culture because it seems really limited to me ( who Igbo don help????,,,, so na English dey help him abi when his mates dey use SQL and other I.T. languages create mega wealth)
    Igbo has been very useful to me and trust me Yoruba has made my life so much easier and fun even in faraway ‘nowhere’ like South Australia 
    One of the commentators called it ‘Very shallow neo-colonial mentality’ and I totally agree with Niola’s comments (please read it so I don’t have to duplicate).


  20. Tobigirl

    March 16, 2016 at 4:59 pm

    mo ki gbo gbo yin o! eku kale ☺☺

  21. nunulicious

    March 16, 2016 at 10:26 pm

    When in rome, behave like the romans.
    speak in English, think in your local dialect.

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