Ronaldo is now one win behind FC Barcelona forward Lionel Messi, who received the honour in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2015.
He beat the likes of Argentina and FC Barcelona’s Lionel Messi, Wales and fellow Real Madrid teammate Gareth Bale, as well as Argentina and Manchester City’s Sergio Aguero.
The 31-year-old Ronaldo had helped his club win last season’s Champions League and he scored three goals as Portugal won Euro 2016.
The former Manchester United forward has scored 19 goals in 20 games for club and country this term, to add to the 54 he got last season.
Ronaldo’s Real Madrid team-mate Gareth Bale finished sixth in the vote, while Leicester City striker Jamie Vardy — the only Englishman included on the 30-player shortlist — was eighth.
The Ballon d’Or is given to the best Europe-based player as voted by 173 journalists from around the world.
It has been awarded by France Football every year since 1956, but for the past six years it became the FIFA Ballon d’Or in association with the world football governing body.
However, FIFA ended its association with the award in September.
FIFA will hand out its own prize for the world’s best men’s player, along with the best women’s player and team of the year, at the Best FIFA Football Awards ceremony in Zurich on January 9.